A cenosphere is a lightweight, hollow sphere made largely of silica and alumina and filled with air, metals, or gas. The Cenospheres are manufactured as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants. Cenosphere-based compounds were fabricated and categorized for their structural and mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural, impact and vibrant mechanical properties such as storage and loss moduli as a function of temperature. The structural qualities were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Wide-Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) though the thermal characterizations were prepared by conducting Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The DSC studies revealed that increase in cenosphere content has resulted in a decrease in crystallinity of the composites.
The amount of separation in retrieving the Cenospheres from coal fly ash has been valued for both wet and dry separation processes through applying the terminal velocity concept of particles. The diameter and density of the particle are determined by sieving industrial cenospheres and coal fly as type IV. Depending on the estimation, the dry separation process executed similarly to the wet separation process, with a most favorable Newton’s efficiency of 0.54, just slightly lower than that of the wet separation process of 0.6.
The mortar cubes can be made with a combination of Cenospheres and silica fume as a standby for the cement. The test on mortar cubes shown that cement loses its strength because of the replacement of cenosphere, but the loss can be calm down by adding silica fume to it. The strength decrement decreases by ages, displaying that the strength attainment is reduced by the addition of cenosphere. The microstructure has also been studied to show the disintegrated structure on advanced replacement of cenosphere. It was also noted that the hydration products react with cenospheres and, due to this; decline in the quantity of portlandite was witnessed resulting in strength decrement.
A cenosphere is a lightweight, inactive, hollow sphere occupied by inert air or gas, usually produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants. They are hollow microscopic balls which are made from smooth silica-aluminum and other minor elements of ceramic. Cenosphere exporter exports the cenosphere which is hard and rigid, in noxious, light-weighted, and insulative. Such qualities make them useful for a variety of products. They can be used as fillers in cement producing a low-density concrete. A quality cenosphere is produced from the burning coal in thermal power plant producing fly ashes which contain ceramic particles.
A variety of products where Cenospheres can be used:
Syntactic foam – cenosphere have been used as filler for syntactic foam providing lower cost, high-level of strength, sound proof, buoyancy and several thermal protections. A ‘syntactic’ is an ordered structure portion of the hollow space, whereas the ‘foam’ relates to the cellular nature of the cenosphere.
Petroleum drilling – the petroleum has been contacting the cenosphere exporter for so many years for reducing the density of a petroleum cement paste without even adding the water content.
Plastics and Polymers – the re-formable shape and strength of cenosphere forced manufacturers of plastics and polymers to use the fly ashes of the cenosphere to avoid shrinking of thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics.
Concrete – cenospheres has been using for concrete since so many years as it provides extra strength whilst lowering the density as they are capable of replacing some of the weight of the sand used in concrete. Cenosphere consists of density which is lower than the water, averaging cenosphere’s 0.7 vs. water’s 1.0, whereas the density of sand particles is about 2.65. Which means 1 pound of cenosphere takes up the same volume as about 3.8 lbs. of sand.
Pharmaceuticals – Cenosphere is occupied with inert air and gasses. Cenosphere exporter creates small balls from the cenospheres which are used for perfect transport device when coated with the drugs. Cenospheres when covered with silver oxide then can be integrated for dressing purposes in order to faster wound healing.
Cenospheres are light weight, inert hollow sphere comprising largely of silica & alumina and filled with air or inert gas. Cenosphere from India is naturally produced by the burning process of crushed coal-fired boilers. They are molded during the molten state of ash and reach spherical shape to have minimum surface. Inert gasses flowing along the burning gas stream also get locked inside the spheres. The bubbles caused by the inert gas combustion get into multiple forms with the frozen particles or in a concentric form, whose diameter is near the diameter of the particles.
The bubbles are found moving on the surface of fly ash. Cenosphere from India is unique free flowing powders composed of hollow, hard-shelled, and minute spheres. Cenospheres are formed from a small portion of the Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) which is produced from the burning of the coal in power stations. These are made up of iron, silica, and alumina. Generally, the size of the cenosphere particles ranges from 1 to 500 microns with an average compressive strength of above 3000 psi having a color variation from white to dark gray.
The factors included in the property of cenosphere are:
- Spherical shape
- Free flowing
- Hard electrical properties
- High melting point
- Low oil absorption
- Good packing application
- Versatile filler
These can be used for both commercial and industrial purposes for oil well cementing and PVC cushion vinyl flooring. However, Fillites are also used due to its unique property of chemical resistance, low density, and strengthening capacity. Fillites are used for the following applications:
- Latex Emulsions,
- Epoxy Resins; and
- Unsaturated Polyester Resins.
Most of the Cenosphere from India are restored from the ash ponds at the coal fire plants. It is a huge challenge for the Indian power sector to generate fly ash from the combustion of the coal, as the sector is dominated by coal. Today, around 53% of the total power capacity is based on the coal. Today, the country generates 160 million tons of fly ash, out of which only 80 million tons are being used.